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These are dated to about the 1st-century CE, with Shiva depicted in Buddhist arts. The syncretism between Buddhism and Shaivism was particularly marked in southeast Asia, but this was not unique, rather it was a common phenomenon also observed in the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, the south and the Himalayan regions. For example, Hindu temples in these regions show Harihara half Shiva, half Vishnu flanked by a standing Buddha on its right and a standing Surya Hindu Sun god on left.

On major festivals of Bali Hindus, such as the Nyepi — a "festival of silence", the observations are officiated by both Buddhist and Shaiva priests. Jainism co-existed with Shaiva culture since ancient times, particularly in western and southern India where it received royal support from Hindu kings of Chaulukya, Ganga and Rashtrakuta dynasties. According to Alexis Sanderson, the link and development of Shaiva goddesses into Jaina goddess is more transparent than a similar connection between Shaivism and Buddhism.

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Among the major goddesses of Jainism that are rooted in Hindu pantheon, particularly Shaiva, include Lakshmi and Vagishvari Sarasvati of the higher world in Jain cosmology, Vidyadevis of the middle world, and Yakshis such as Ambika, Cakreshvari, Padmavati and Jvalamalini of the lower world according to Jainism. Shaiva-Shakti iconography is found in major Jain temples. Jain remained strictly vegetarian and avoided animal sacrifice, while Shaiva accepted the practice.

Shaiva Puranas, Agamas and other regional literature refer to temples by various terms such as Mandir , Shivayatana , Shivalaya , Shambhunatha , Jyotirlingam , Shristhala , Chattraka , Bhavaggana , Bhuvaneshvara , Goputika , Harayatana , Kailasha , Mahadevagriha , Saudhala and others. Many of the Shiva-related pilgrimage sites such as Varanasi, Amarnath, Kedarnath, Somnath, and others are broadly considered holy in Hinduism.

These temples and its location attracts pilgrimage called tirtha or tirthayatra. Many of the historic Puranas literature embed tourism guide to Shaivism-related pilgrimage centers and temples.

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Major rivers of the Indian subcontinent and their confluence sangam , natural springs, origin of Ganges River and pancha-ganga , along with high mountains such as Kailasha with Mansovar Lake are particularly revered spots in Shaivism. The early Bhakti movement poets of Shaivism composed poems about pilgrimage and temples, using these sites as metaphors for internal spiritual journey. Therefore strive for self-mastery, seeking to win the way upwards. To have self-mastery is to be a yogin yogitvam.

Leaving aside what remains outside he should use his vision to penetrate all [within]. Then once he has transcended all lower realities, he should seek the Shiva level. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Much more than documents.

One of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being. Scriptures and texts. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Other texts. Text classification. Other topics. See also: Shiva. See also: Rudra and Shiva. The horizontal three ash lines Tripundra with a red mark on forehead is a revered mark across Shaiva traditions symbolizing Om. Shaivism iconography in Cambodia , at Kbal Spean river site.

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As in India, the site also co-features Vaishnavism-related iconography. Katas Raj. However, states David Lorenzen, there is a paucity of primary sources on Kapalikas, and historical information about them is available from fictional works and other traditions who disparage them. USA: Himalayan Academy. Raju Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press.


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Krishna Janmashtami [birth] – Hindu**

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One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu. Some observations on the chronology of the early Kushans. Motilal Banarsidass. Meister University of Pennsylvania Press. Indo-Iranian Journal. Brill Academic Publishers.

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